How To Made Perfume By Yourself?

Choosing the right gift requires a lot of thought. But when you make a gift on your own, the effort immediately makes the other person feel special! Here is a simple way to make your very own handmade perfume to gift to a loved one!

You will need:

a) Essential oils like jojoba oil or almond oil
b) Ethanol or vodka as alcohol
c) Distilled water
d) Coffee filter
e) Dark coloured glass bottle.

The essential oils form the base of your perfume and are known as the notes of the perfume. The base notes are the ones that stay longer on your skin. The middle notes evaporate a little quickly and the top notes will evaporate first. Bridge notes are the intermediate ones and help in tying the scent together.

Please Note: You need to maintain an order while mixing the perfume.

Step 1: Add jojoba or almond oil. Following this, add the essential oil in the same order; the base notes, followed by the middle notes, then finally the top notes. Add a couple of drops of bridge notes, if desired.

Step 2: Add two and a half ounces of alcohol. Shake the bottle couple of times and let it stay for minimum 48 hours to preferably six weeks. The scent will change and will become stronger with each passing day. Adding a spoon of glycerin will help your perfume retain its scent longer.

Step 3: When you get the desired smell of the perfume, add two tablespoons of distilled water and shake the bottle to mix the perfume. Filter the perfume through a coffee filter and pour it in the final dark bottle. Make sure that the bottle is dark, airtight and is stored in a cool place. Give your perfume a nice name and pour it in a decorative and attractive bottle. If you feel that your perfume is too strong, you can dilute it with water.

Gift your special one your own homemade perfume and your loved one will surely be touched!

Unveiling Aloe Vera’s Secrets

As a teenager, it is normal to get acne and other skin related problems. When you visit a dermatologist to address the issue, the doctor gives you a cream that is nothing but aloe Vera gel. You are busy playing with your friends and you fall down. The moment your mother sees the wound, she gets a small bottle of aloe Vera gel and applies it on the wound.

What is the secret behind this cactus called as aloe Vera? What properties does it have that gives it the ability to heal wounds and other skin related issues.

What is aloe Vera?
Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant. For thousands of years, humans have been using this plant as it is believed that it has medicinal value. Around 3500 years ago, the Egyptians and the Greeks have used this plant in healing wounds and addressing many health issues like constipation.

Aloe Vera belongs to the Lily family and all this while it was shunned because no one really knew its benefits and miracles. Now scientists are researching on this plant to find out how the cooling liquid from the fat leaf of the Aloe Vera plant helps in healing wounds easily.

How Does Aloe Vera Work?
The answer for how aloe vera actually works is still unclear as every researcher has come up with a different version of answer for this question. Some researchers believe that the glue like liquid in the leaf of the plant helps in reducing inflammation and thus heals the wound, while some others believe that aloe vera is a mixture of water and many vitamins and minerals and this helps in curing ailments.

However, a recent research has revealed that the cell walls of aloe vera contains cellulose and has a complex carbohydrate called as pectin which forms like a jelly after combining with water and sugar. Pectin is a substance that is used in jams in order to stop it from running.

During the research, the scientists applied this pectin to some injured rats and pigs and found that the animals healed faster. When a wound heals, the cells around it get stimulated and they divide and grow to cover the wound. Pectin helps in the division and growth of the cells nearby leading to fast healing of the wound.

Nature has indeed gifted some or the other quality to each of its baby, all we have to do is look for it and use it to the fullest. So the next time, you have any skin related issues or you injure yourself, make sure you dab some aloe vera gel on it to hasten the healing process. However, make sure you go for the pure form of it to reap the right results.

Understanding Polyvinyl Acetate

Polyvinyl acetate (PVA or PVAc) is a thermoplastic polymer with a chemical formula of (C4H6O2)n. It is a synthetic resin prepared by the polymerization of vinyl acetate. In its most important application, polyvinyl acetate serves as the film-forming ingredient in water-based (latex) paints; it also is used in adhesives.

This chemical was first discovered by a German scientist Dr. Fritz Klatte in 1912. Since its discovery, it has been employed widely as a binding material, due to its adhesive properties for porous materials like wood and paper. Other than its use as polyvinyl acetate glue, it is also used in paper and textile industry to produce PVA coatings that lend a shiny touch to surfaces. PVAc is commonly used in the manufacture of latex paints, where it helps in forming a tough coating and a supportive film. It is also widely used for the production of polyvinyl acetate adhesives, which are more commonly known as Elmer’s glue, carpenter’s glue, or white glue.

On the other hand, PVAc is soluble in alcohols, ketones, and esters. It has a molar mass of 86.09 grams per mole (g/mol). The ester groups in the structural lattice of polyvinyl acetate render it reactive with alkalis, and lead to the formation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH, PVA, or PVAL) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Boron compounds like borax and boric acid also react with the polymer, under alkaline settings, leading to the formation of a complex borate-slime-precipitate.

Industrial applications of polyvinyl acetate normally use it in the form of a liquefied emulsion. Polyvinyl acetate polymer exhibits sound resistance to UV rays and oxidation. This renders it an effective polymer with good aging characteristics, yet its water sensitivity can be a problem. This is typically taken care of by formulating it with plasticizers to increase its reliability and stability.

When PVAc is incorporated into emulsion coatings and adhesives, it is normally converted to polyvinyl alcohol first, which is a water-soluble polymer. This is done by means of partial hydrolysis. On a lesser level, it is also used as a protective coating for cheese to render it safe from humidity and fungi.

Germany Developed The World’s First “Chemical Chips”

Recently, the Dresden University of Technology in German has successfully developed a “chemical chips, which is the world’s first chemical chip.

The size of this product is close to a A5 paper, the thickness is equivalent to a finger. It consists of multilayer composites of which dense grid distribution of tiny tubes. 2000 micro-valves in them can be made reactions automatically based on chemical composition, concentration and other properties of the liquid, and allows the liquid to pass or block its adoption. Through such control, the chemical liquid can be pre-set analysis of the reaction.

The chip has achieved some rapid automatic analysis of the urine and blood samples, and also can be served as a tool for rapid testing of blood glucose levels.

Glyphosate Becomes Popular Again

Glyphosate price has risen 11.6%, compared to the beginning of the year. The Xin’an shares said, if the price can continue to rise, the industry is expected to start can turn around in the third quarter.

Recalling the history of glyphosate’s development in China recent years, it can use “ups and downs” to describe.

In 2006, Monsanto, the world’s largest manufacturer of this chemical, closed a 10 million tons of glyphosate production line, while in the field of downstream applications, such as soybeans, corn, driven by a large area of crops grown, the market for glyphosateThe demand has begun to enter a period of steady growth. 2007, glyphosate prices surging, soaring from 25,000 yuan per ton to 11 yuan per ton in 2008, up more than 300%.

In the A-share market, shares of related companies have a very nice performance accordingly. As the earliest in the glyphosate production of listed companies, the Xin’an shares of stock rose to 27.75 yuan from 16.72 yuan during December 2006 to January 2007. With the advent of the big bull market prices, the the Xin’an shares of stock ride that.

Driven by the industry of high economic, Monsanto then returned to the 100,000 tons of capacity shut down before, at the same time, domestic enterprises continue to expand capacity. However, due to the international financial crisis, Monsanto to reduce the amount of imports from China, the domestic glyphosate instantly transferred to a state of oversupply, the price all the way down to 21,500 yuan per ton in 2009, landed on the “liberation” in one fell swoop, the relevant company’s share price could not immune from the fate of decline. The entire industry began to fall in a standstill.

Until this year, the glyphosate market seems to start the “Resurrection”. According to the site data, the current supply is still tight on July 10. Because of the tight situtation and the rare market quotations, the FOB proce of Glyphosate of Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Co., Ltd. is $ 4100-4300 per ton. Societe Generale Securities recently released research report shows that in east of China, glyphosate price was 26,500 yuan / ton on July 8, an increase of 11.6% during the year, compared to the beginning price 23,750 yuan / ton .

EU: The Low GWP Refrigerant Will Instead Of HFC In 2020

At present, the EU is revising the regulations anout F-gas. A new report shows that 2020 HFC will be completely eliminated in 20 sub-industries in 2020 and be prohibited from using in some new equipments, which will greatly reduce the emissions of HFC.

A report entitled “HFCs Low GWP Of Alternative Refrigerants: The Feasibility Report Of Eliminating HFC In 2020″ clears the timeable. It sets the concrete datetime of prohibiting the use of different HFC refrigerans in new equipments, and points out the date of phasing out HFCs in 20 sub-industries in 2020. The involved industries including the following:

1. Domestic refrigerator (in 2015)
2. Commercial refrigeration: centralized systems, refrigeration equipment, or one device
3. Refrigerated transport: large vehicles
4. Fixed air conditioning and heat pumps:  mobile air conditioning, a drag of an air-conditioned, multi-line (with few exceptions), the duct roof machines, chillers, and only heat pumps for heating
5. Travel air conditioning: cargo ships, passenger cars (there are a few exceptions) and trucks (with few exceptions)
6. The foam (in 2015): HFC-134a, HFC-152a, spraying foam and other polyurethane foams(CAS number is 9009-54-5)
7. Aerosols (with few exceptions)
8. Fire HFC-23 (in 2015)

The report also points out that compared to traditional HFC technologies, in addition to reducing direct emissions of refrigerants, but also through the use of many technologies to reduce indirect emissions, such as improving energy efficiency. Despite the high cost of investment of HFCs alternatives, but these can be absorbed through the entire life cycle of the equipment within low running costs.

Obviously, there is no single alternative technologies are applicable to all areas, just as no single F-gas applicable to all areas. There are many factors affecting the adoption of low GWP technology, including local economic and regulatory conditions, and climatic conditions and other factors. But one thing is very clear, by the year of 2020, some major areas can eliminate HFCs, and use safer, cheaper and more efficient alternatives.

Flotation In Medicine & Industry

Froth flotation is a process using air bubbles to separate materials based on their relative affinity to water. Bubbles carry reagent and hydrophobic materials to the top of a tank where they can be removed. The process also widely used in medical science. In some schools of alternative medicine, flotation therapy may be used as a tool to help clients achieve specific goals, and people also use flotation tanks more generally for meditation and relaxation.

In Medical Treatments
Researchers believed that the brain would sink into a state of semi-consciousness if the body was suspended in warm water in a dark, soundproofed room. Originally, flotation tanks were designed for sensory deprivation experiments in the 1950s. Early studies seemed to suggest that this was, in fact, the case. As research subjects relaxed in the flotation tanks, their brain waves changed, until they ultimately reached a state of deep relaxation which is very close to unconsciousness.

In a flotation therapy session, the client will be asked to strip and shower before entering the tank. Many clients like to wear swim suits for modesty. The therapist may discuss the experience with the client before he or she enters the tank, and the client is usually asked to remove all jewelry and other distractions. Ear plugs may be provided to keep water out of the client’s ears and to keep sound pollution to a minimum.

In Industry
Air bubbles are introduced at the base of the tank. The tendency of the hydrophobic materials to adhere to the bubbles carries them up to the surface of the tank. At the top, the bubbles carrying their load of minerals, or froth, are skimmed off. The segregated compounds, which are solid, go through a further processing step to separate them from the air bubbles and the reagent residue. The residual hydrophilic material mixed with water in the tank, also known as gangue, is drained away. Potassium amyl xanthatre is a most powerful chemical reagent used as collector of Xanthate, widely used in the flotation treatment of sulfide ores,especially for the flotation treatment of Cu-Ni compound sulfide ore.

Many factors affect the quality of separation; these include the rate of flotation, the size of the ore particles, the density of the ore and water mixture, and the amount of air used. A recent use of the process separates ink from recycled paper. The mining uses of froth flotation include the separation of many different types of compounds including sulfides, silicates, phosphates, coal, and iron ore. Reagents or surfactants are carefully chosen to produce exactly the separation effect desired for a particular ore or combination of ores.

What Is Hiprex?

Hiprex, also known as Mandelamine and methenamine, is an medicine used to treat the infections of the urinary tract, such as cystitis, after the infection has initially been successful treated with other antibiotics. It is usually prescribed on a long-term basis for individuals with a history of repeated or chronic urinary tract infections.

Function
Hiprex tablets contain the active ingredient methenamine (previously known as hexamine hippurate in the UK). Methenamine is a type of medicine called an antibiotic. It is used to treat and prevent urinary tract infections. It requires the urine to be acidic for it to have its antibacterial effect. It works by killing bacteria in the urinary tract. When there is an infection in the urinary tract, the bacteria in the bladder create an acidic environment that helps them to grow and multiply rapidly. As a result, the urine becomes more acidic, making it painful to pass urine.

Methenamine is absorbed from the gut and passes into the urine where, if the urine is acidic, a chemical reaction causes formaldehyde to be released. Formaldehyde kills the bacteria present in the urinary tract. Methenamine is not used very frequently because it needs the urine to be acidic to work.

Uses
The drug can also be used to kill bacteria in the urine that are not currently causing symptoms and thus prevent urinary infections, for example in people with catheters, or to prevent bacteria being introduced into the urinary tract during instrumental procedures.

Consult your health care professional about possible changes in your diet if necessary to increase the acidity of your urine (e.g., eating more protein and foods such as cranberries and cranberry juice with added vitamin C, prunes, or plums; avoiding citrus fruits and juices, milk and other dairy products, antacids). Before you start taking methenamine, check your urine with phenaphthazine paper or another test to see if it is acidic. Your urine must be acidic (pH 5.5 or below) for this medicine to work properly.

Warnnings
This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

Side effects that typically go away as your body adjusts to the medication and do not require medical attention unless they continue or are bothersome: nausea and vomiting. If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Tips Of Coloring And Perming Hair

Some people like to keep up with the latest trends. This is evident with the variety of hairstyles seen in public and on celebrities. One of the ways people tend to update their look is by changing their hair color. Another way to update your look is to change hairstyle. So, you have to be very careful to maintain the health of your hair when you are processing it. If you keep your hair healthy and well moisturized, you can have beautiful colored hair with a perm.

Start with Good Hair Habits
Before you color or perm your hair, get it in good shape. Cut off any damaged hair and moisturize it. Your hairstylist can help you determine whether your hair is damaged. Examine the ends carefully for split ends. These indicate dry, damaged hair. Read your shampoos and conditioner bottles. Make sure they are designed for your hair type.

Coloring
Read the instructions carefully and follow them. Be especially careful about the timing and the follow-up conditioning. Once your hair is healthy, you can color it. If you want to go lighter, you will need to bleach it and then color it. This should only be done on very healthy hair. Going darker does not require bleaching first, so it is gentler on hair.

Waiting
You need to wait at least one week after coloring your hair to perm it. Your hair needs a rest after the color before you use more chemicals on it. Some colors, like reds, are harder to keep vibrant and color protection shampoo can help. During this time, continue to use good hair care products that are designed for your hair type. You can change to a color protection shampoo if you want.

Perming
You are ready to perm you hair. Perming chemicals are harsh. Extra curly hair is treated with a very basic solution (9.3-9.5) of ammonium thioglycolate, then put on rollers with a slightly higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than in less curly hair (5 percent). Sodium bromate(NaBrO3, CAS No. 7789-38-0) rather than hydrogen peroxide is used to quench the reaction.

Don’t wash or wet your hair for 48 hours after your perm while the perm “sets.” After that, continue to treat your hair with the best products to maintain healthy looking hair. Remember, your perm will last until it is cut out of your hair, but your color will have to be re-done about every five to six weeks.

Medicinal Uses Of Baryta Carbonica

Baryta carbonica is a type of homeopathic remedy widely used to treat children and the elderly who are suffering from a huge variety of symptoms generally encompassing physical, emotional and mental impairments. It is also known as Barium carbonate, Bar-C and Baryta-carb. It is a chemical compound also used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement. This barium carbonate remedy is thus taken from mineral barite and witherite found mainly in ancient rocks.

History
The mineral is named after William Withering, who in 1784 recognized it to be chemically distinct from barytes. It occurs in veins of lead ore at Hexham in Northumberland, Alston in Cumbria, Anglezarke, near Chorley in Lancashire and a few other localities. Witherite is readily altered to barium sulfate by the action of water containing calcium sulfate in solution and crystals are therefore frequently encrusted with barytes. It is the chief source of barium salts and is mined in considerable amounts in Northumberland.

Identification
Witherite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. The crystals are invariably twinned together in groups of three, giving rise to pseudo-hexagonal forms somewhat resembling bipyramidal crystals of quartz, the faces are usually rough and striated horizontally. Preparations of Baryta carbonica are in the forms of granules, tablets and pellets which are available in many pharmacies.

Uses
Elderly people requiring Baryta carbonica(BaCO3, CAS No. 513-77-9) frequently have senile dementia, a disorder showing deterioration of mental abilities usually associated with getting old. Stroke and Alzheimer’s disease are the two most common causes of senile dementia. Symptoms include loss of memory, short attention span, confusion, language difficulties, irritability and impaired judgment.

Children who usually benefit from Barium carbonate exhibit delayed growth development and mental retardation. Physically, they show abnormally large and bulging abdomens, big heads, and limbs and genitals that are small for their ages. Trisomy 21, commonly known as Down’s syndrome, and dwarfism are some of the medical conditions treated with Baryta carbonica. These individuals usually manifest with walking difficulty, slow thinking process and poor social skills.

Timidity, shyness, lack of self-confidence and indecision are some of the emotional problems which can be helped with Baryta carbonica homeopathic remedy. The profile of individuals often needing Barium carbonate are those who appear immature and have underdeveloped personalities. Homeopathic practitioners usually prescribe the remedy after determining the needs of the patients.