Chemicals Used In Fireworks

Although fireworks are still as popular as ever, at least some of the science behind them was developed in China hundreds of years ago, when a chemical composition known as black powder was discovered. Before the 1830s, the only colors were orange and white. As knowledge about chemistry grew, so did the palette of colors available. Now, through the combination of various chemicals and metals we are able to see colorful displays that seem to get more intricate as each year passes.

This explosive charge may contain more reactive and more powerful oxidizers, such as potassium chlorate (KClO3) and perchlorate (KClO4), to produce a more rapid reaction and a bigger bang. In addition, the explosive bang of fireworks is also often due to the use of black powder. In this case, however, the powder is contained in a packing, which allows it to build up significant heat and pressure before the packet ruptures, so as to generate a bang rather than a propulsive force.

Black powder used to cause the firework explosions produces an orange flash. Before the 1830s this is how the color was produced. Black powder is still the most common exploding agent in fireworks, but the colors are now created using chemical compounds instead.

The way we see the color explosions comes from a few components. Iron makes the colors sparkle and chlorine affects the brightness of the colors. Each chemical combination is carefully put together to produce the desired color and effect. The black powder or explosive agent determines how far the color extends. The coloring agents are responsible for what color is shown and the other compounds dictate how the color appears. The star effect commonly seen is a result of zinc.

Some colors are produced from their own chemical solutions, while others can be achieved by mixing primary color solutions. Barium chloride dihydrate makes a bright green color, and orange is now made from calcium. Purple is just a combination of the red and blue compounds. Gold is produced by a blend of iron, carbon and charcoal or lampblack. Silver comes from aluminum, titanium or magnesium.

A firework is designed a bit like a rocket, with a hole at the base. It is a mixture of 15 percent charcoal and 10 percent sulfur, which serves as fuel, and 75 percent potassium nitrate (KNO3), which provides oxygen for the combustion reaction. As hot gases are expelled out from the base, they propel the firework upward. The substance that gets fireworks airborne is black powder, also known as gunpowder. When ignited, these chemicals burn rapidly and produce large quantities of hot gases inside a firework.

Wood Rosin Used In Beverages

                                     

One of the most ominous sounding ingredients in a fruit-flavored beverage is glycerol ester of wood rosin. The product is similar to other forms of rosins but produced from wood products. Indeed, there is actually a trace of real products in many citrus-flavored sodas and other fruit drinks. The rosins are often byproducts of the wood pulping process that yields paper or can be specifically processed from stumps or other tree parts.

From the legal definition, wood rosin is the powder remaining after the distillation of wood turpentine. It is typically a powder material. Additionally, what is known as wood rosin or rosin oil can be extracted from wood products using a petroleum-based solvent. This type of the powder is commonly extracted with petroleum solvents rather than distillation. Pine type is often extracted from the stumps of pine trees cut for lumber.

While pine resin is used in conjunction with alcohol to produce lacquers used for wood finishes and in printers ink when used in conjunction with mineral oils. Gum rosin is applied in soft drinks to as an emulsifying agent to allow citrus flavors to become water soluble. In order to achieve a pleasing and authentic fruit flavor in a water-based beverage, manufacturers often use flavoring oils derived from citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons or limes. These flavoring oils are very concentrated, and must be balanced out with sweeteners before a beverage becomes palatable.

Without the ester of wood rosin as a stabilizer, the flavoring oil would eventually separate and the beverage would become unpalatable. In the case of fruit-flavored beverages, the addition of glycerol ester of wood rosin allows the fruit oils to remain in suspension when blended with water. This means that a can of orange-flavored soda would have a consistent orange flavor, not a layer of orange oil floating on top of carbonated water.

Federal regulations prevent more than 100 parts of this substance per million, which essentially means there is only a trace amount of actual wood rosin in a typical can of citrus-flavored soda. There is no evidence that the powder poses any sort of health threat to consumers. There are other stabilizers approved for use in beverages, but manufacturers consider glycerol ester of wood rosin to be the best and most natural option.

Vitamin B6 Fact Sheets

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is crucial for many bodily functions as well as the overall maintenance of good health. It is important for the immune and nervous systems, and can help relieve symptoms of arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome. It is an essential nutrient that we must obtain from our food or from dietary supplements.

Function
Vitamin B6 is required for the breakdown and utilization of all food–protein, carbohydrates and fat–that we eat. Vitamin B6 is required for the formation of many neurotransmitters–the chemicals that our brain uses to send messages throughout the body–including serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. Vitamin B6 is required for the conversion of homocysteine to cysteine in the body (along with folate and vitamin B12). High homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, as well depression. In helping to reduce homocysteine levels in the body, Vitamin B6 plays an important role in reducing the risk of heart disease.

Benefits
Researchers have associated B6 with the prevention or treatment of many medical problems. For example, it may help prevent or treat high blood pressure and the dangerous build up of plaque in a person’s arteries. It may help relieve or prevent depression, epilepsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. It may even play a role in the treatment of such conditions as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), asthma, kidney stones, and alcoholism. Interestingly, those with adequate intakes of this vitamin may even have fewer skin conditions, such as acne and dermatitis.

Types And Sources
The types are called pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine. While most people take vitamin B6 supplements to make sure they are getting enough, some can get enough of this vitamin by eating a well-balanced diet. Vitamin B6 supplements can be synthesized by 2-cyanoacetamide(also known as Cyanoacetamide, CAS No. 107-91-5). The nutrition is found in a wide variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, meats, and fish. Turnip greens, spinach, and cauliflower are sources of B6. Meat, fish, and poultry sources of the vitamin include chicken, beef, venison, salmon, and tuna.

Warning
Excess Vitamin B6 in the pyridoxine form can result in nerve disturbances that can cause symptoms of tingling, numbness or pain. Do not take more than 100 mg of vitamin B6 daily on a long-term basis unless it is in the pyridoxal phosphate form and only after consulting with your doctor.

Different Uses Of Isopropyl Alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol, or 2-propanol, is a colorless, combustible liquid known by a variety of names. It belongs to a class of organic compounds called alcohols, all of which are distinguished by an -OH group attached to their carbon chain. Many of isopropyl alcohol’s physical properties resemble those of other similar short-chain alcohols.

Properties
Thanks to its -OH group, isopropyl alcohol molecules can form weak bonds, called hydrogen bonds, that help hold the molecules together. Consequently, it has a much higher boiling and melting point than propane, which also contains three carbons and eight hydrogens. The boiling point of isopropyl alcohol is 82 degrees Celsius; its melting point is -89 C. Its boiling point is lower than that of 1-propanol (propyl alcohol).

Although it is made from combining water with propylene, it can be easily separated from its water constituent though a process called salting out. This involves the addition of an organic salt such as sodium chloride.

Uses
Since isopropyl alcohol is a solvent, it has many uses as a cleaning agent, providing safety precautions are observed. For instance, computer users know its value in removing dirt from hard-to-reach areas, such as between keys on keyboards and on mouse wheels. In fact, since it evaporates almost immediately, there is little risk of shock or damage to electrical components.

Isopropyl alcohol is flammable both in liquid and vapor form. Exposure to oxidizing agents like chromic acid will convert isopropyl alcohol into acetone, while exposure to heat and concentrated sulfuric acid can dehydrate isopropyl alcohol to form propene. Strong bases can tear the hydrogen ion off isopropyl alcohol to form isopropoxides, which are strong bases and may be useful in some organic syntheses. Reacting isopropyl alcohol with phosphorus tribromide(Br3P, CAS No. 7789-60-8) will replace the alcohol group with a bromine atom.

In addition to providing an outlet for chemical experimentation in the lab, isopropyl alcohol can be found in nearly any home medicine cabinet. In fact, it was once the popular choice for medicinal rubdowns—hence the nickname “rubbing alcohol.” When applied to the skin, the water component quickly evaporates, cooling the skin’s surface and rapidly reducing body temperature. For this reason, it was once recommended for reducing fever in children. However, since rapid decrease in temperature is now considered detrimental, health care professionals no longer recommend the use of it for this purpose.

Effects Of Epinephrine To Body

Epinephrine is a hormone that is chemically identical to the adrenaline produced by the body, and the names of the two are often used interchangeably to some extent. When produced naturally by the body, it helps us respond effectively to short-term stress. It is also used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and other problems that cause a constriction of airways. Known as a sympathomimetic agent, the substance is a powerful drug that affects the body quickly.

Artificially derived epinephrine has saved many lives since its development. It can be used in emergency situations by those who are suffering from an asthma attack or from anaphylaxis, in order to allow breathing again. Anaphylaxis, or anaphylactic shock, is the term for a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Those who have a severe allergy to peanuts or the venom from bee stings, for example often keep a syringe of epinephrine on hand, just in case. It should only be used in emergency situations, however, because of the potential side effects, which can adversely affect the heart.

For people who take this substance for allergies, a so-called epi pen often is the preferred method of giving the medication. Many people with anaphylactic allergies keep an epi pen available at all times because of the rapidity with which one should take the medication. The patient will have a prescription for the typical dose he or she needs to take. When the patient comes into contact with the allergen, someone will need to open the pen, screw on a needle tip and inject the epinephrine. The effects begin quickly.

When epinephrine(CAS number is 51-43-4) is administered, it is usually injected into the fleshy area of the thigh, and not into a vein, which could prevent it from working properly. Injection into the hands or feet could cause a loss or reduction of blood flow to these areas, and is not recommended. One reason why this drug works so well to treat severe allergic reactions is that it suppresses the action of the immune system. This is important to consider, given the fact that it is also produced by the body as a response to stress, including psychological stress.

While epinephrine works well for many people, the side effects of this medicine can be dangerous. The minor side effects include headaches and nausea and can be treated simply by sitting down and resting. These side effects are not typically dangerous but can be bothersome.

Three Common Treatments Of Cancer

Despite years of research and millions of dollars in funding, medical scientists have yet to discover a way to cure cancer completely. Though this reality seems dim, the advancements made in the treatment have improved vastly over the years, and many people can now positively face their battle with cancer with hope.

The specific treatment of a cancer depends on its type, its location in the body and how far throughout the body it has spread. There are three main treatments that can help stop or slow the spread.

The specific type of treatment any particular patient receives depends on many factors, the most important of which is the type of cancer one has. Other factors that may dictate treatment include the stage that the cancer is in and other medical conditions that may be impacting the patient’s condition. While it’s true that there is yet no way to cure cancer, cancer can be forced into remission, in some cases to the extent that a patient is essentially cured because the cancer never returns.

In chemotherapy, a combination of drugs is used in order to combat the cancer. is a chemical treatment that is administered intravenously. The drugs used in chemotherapy tend to vary depending on the cancer treatment. Chemotherapy is administered in rounds, or regularly scheduled doses. Though chemotherapy does not cure cancer, it is often very successful in preventing the spread of certain types of cancer and initiating remission.

Radiotherapy, another of the three major cancer treatments, attempts to kill the cancer cells with radiation. The radiation is administered by controlled x-rays to the cancer-affected area. The x-rays are administered in a specific way in order not to cause damage to the surrounding tissue. Like all cancer treatments, radiotherapy can cause some side effects, such as depression, lethargy and a lack of appetite. Some women who have radiotherapy in the pelvic region have been known to start menopause early. (S)-10-Hydroxycamptothecin (CAS NO.19685-09-7) is also used in the treatment of cancer.

In some cases, an oncologist, who is a specialist that treats cancer, may recommend a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.  If cancer is still in the early stages and has not spread, then surgery is sometimes the best treatment. Surgery is also used if the cancer appears as solid tumors. Some of the surrounding tissue, including some lymph nodes, may also be removed during surgery in order to prevent the cancer from returning.

Earlier detection, prevention, and aggressive treatments have led to an improved success rate for treating many types of cancer. As a patient, these advancements might mean fighting off the disease until there is a way to cure cancer.

Famotidine Used For Gastric Acid

Famotidine(C8H15N7O2S3) tablets are used to treat the symptoms of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal disease (GERD), which is more commonly known as reflux or heartburn. It is important to follow the directions on the product label or prescription bottle exactly to achieve the maximum effects and limit the chances of adverse reactions.

Gastric Acid
Gastric acid is a chemical that is produced in the stomach. It plays an essential role in the digestive process. There is an extremely sensitive acid-base balance in the stomach that is controlled by the gastric acid and buffers. These buffers are also released in the duodenum to prevent hyperacidity in the small intestine. The stomach produces mucus, which protects the stomach lining from being damaged by the gastric acid.

Function
The drug works by slowing or stopping the production of natural stomach acids and blocking the immune system’s inflammatory response. People who suffer from chronic heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers can benefit from taking prescription-strength famotidine. Liquid solutions and capsules containing high concentrations of the drug inhibit the production of new stomach acid and block the release of antibodies called histamines in the digestive tract.

Histamine
One of the chemicals involved in stimulating release of gastric acid in the stomach is histamine. The histamine binds to H2 receptors in the stomach lining and stimulates acid secretion. Histamines are responsible for triggering inflammation and irritation that eventually lead to ulcers. Famotidine tablets decrease the secretion of acid by blocking the H2 receptor and thereby stopping the stimulation of secretion.

Usage
Depending on the indication, famotidine(CAS No. 76824-35-6) tablets may be given long term, or for a short period. Usually they are taken as a once or twice daily dose. They may be given initially as a higher dose until symptoms have resolved, and then the dose may be decreased to a lower long-term maintenance dose. The dose and dosage schedule recommended by the doctor should not be exceeded. If symptoms continue despite treatment, medical attention should be sought.

Effects
It is possible to experience negative side effects when using either OTC or prescription famotidine, though they are usually mild. A person may have digestive issues such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea, or vomiting. Headaches, dizziness, dry mouth, and fatigue are less common. Allergic reactions that cause breathing difficulties and skin hives may also occur. It is important to report any mild side effects to a doctor and seek immediate care in the case of arrhythmia or breathing problems.

Organic Synthesis Facts

The making of an organic compound from simpler starting materials. Organic synthesis plays an important role by allowing for the creation of specific molecules for scientific and technological investigations.

Organic synthesis involves the conversion of a substrate to the desired product molecule. To make the product molecule, most organic syntheses  require  the use of a series of one-step reactions. The heart of organic synthesis is designing synthetic routes to a molecule. The simplest synthesis of a molecule is one in which the target molecule can be obtained by submitting a readily available starting material to a single reaction that converts it to the desired target molecule.

Determining which reactions to use follows a technique called retrosynthetic analysis. E. J. Corey developed retrosynthetic analysis, and for this technique, along with some related research, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1990. Retrosynthetic analysis is working from the desired product back towards some readily available starting material. However, in most cases the synthesis is not that straightforward; in order to convert a chosen starting material to the target molecule, numerous steps that add, change, or remove functional groups, and steps that build up the carbon atom framework of the target molecule may need to be done.

Organic chemists use synthesis for a variety of purposes. Traditionally, a synthesis was the final proof of the structure of a natural product isolated from a plant or animal source. The necessity of using synthesis to prove the structure of a compound diminished after the advent of the instrumental methods of analysis, although chemists still commonly synthesize natural products.

The synthesis of these natural products increases the available supply of the compounds for further study or use. Chemists also use synthesis to attempt to prepare previously unknown compounds that they predict to be useful either for testing  chemical theories or for creating new products. D-valinol (C5H13NO, CAS No. 4276-09-9) is used in the preparation of organic chemicals.

Organic synthesis impacts every aspect of your life. One example is the high-performance polymers that affect our lives in so many ways. Everything from automobile parts to most modern sporting gear had their origins in organic synthesis. Besides, organic chemists design and produce most new pharmaceuticals. Often they start by using sophisticated computer software to predict what molecules might be the most active against a particular disease. Then they synthesize those  molecules. Next, biochemists and biologists screen them for their activity in living organisms, and eventually physicians administer trials to human subjects.

The Limiting Reagent In Chemical Reactions

You can write every chemical reaction as a chemical equation. The equation describes in short hand notation what happens when chemical species react with each other. Similarly, if he has a certain amount of a reactant, it may be useful to find out how much product he will be able to make with it. The limiting reactant, also called a limiting reagent, limits the amount of product that can be made in a reaction—once this reactant is consumed, the reaction will stop.

The production of a specific amount of product requires enough of all the reactants to meet the ratios specified by the equation. When one reactant is not present in sufficient amount for the other reactants to carry out the reaction, it is the limiting reagent.

Example
To help understand what a limiting reagent is, think about something that almost everyone can understand. Consider making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches for your family or friends. You know the things required to make sandwiches are bread, peanut butter and jelly. You need to make 10 sandwiches. In order to make one sandwich, you need two slices of bread, some peanut butter and some jelly. You only have one loaf of bread on hand and it contains 17 slices of bread. For the construction of 10 sandwiches, you will need 20 slices of bread to complete the task. You are limited in completing the task by the amount of bread you have, therefore, the limiting ingredient for the process of making the sandwiches is the bread. In chemical terms, the bread would be the limiting reagent.

Chemical Equation Units
The limiting reactant is the reactant that will run out first as a reaction progresses. When the limiting reactant is used up, the reaction will cease. Any chemical or substance has the potential to be a limiting reactant. In order to determine which reactant is the limiting one, the chemist will need to determine how much of each substance he has. He will also need to know what proportion of each reactant the reaction needs in order to continue the desired amount of time. The result yields the number of moles of the reagent. You must perform the conversion for each of the reactants in the equation. TBTU(CAS No. 125700-67-6), or we can call it Knorr’s reagent is a reactant like this.

Comparison
Before he can determine which reactant is the limiting reactant, a scientist needs to know how many moles of each substance he has. Compare the number of moles of each reagent you have against the ratio of moles needed for the reaction and select the reagent that has the least amount. Remember the example of making sandwiches. If the reaction requires 3 moles of reagent A, 2 moles of reagent B and 1 mole of reagent C than the ratios are 1/3 for A, 1/2 for B and 1 for C. Take the number of moles of each reagent you have and multiply by the ratio for that reagent. The reagent with the lowest value is the limiting reagent.

Glutamine In Human Body

Scientifically speaking, glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids formed by the human body. As a protein, it is a building block of muscle. It is a nonessential amino acid, which means it is produced naturally in the body and can be put to use without being ingested. The body uses glutamine to improve mental function, control blood sugar levels and maintain muscle mass, among other applications.

Features
Glutamine is the most abundant building block of protein in the bloodstream. The body produces it and it is available in common foods. However, when individuals must deal with surgeries, infections and prolonged periods of stress, its supplementation may be necessary.

Benefits
As a supplement, glutamine is seen as both a ‘brain food’ and a muscle mass enhancer for body builders. Physicians have been known to use it for the treatment of alcoholism, mild depression and muscle-wasting conditions such as Huntington’s disease. This substance is actually the most common free-form amino acid found floating in muscle tissues. During times of stress, the body may draw glutamine away from the muscles in order to bolster the immune system or prevent blood sugar reactions. This is why many bodybuilders and other proponents of supplements often add daily doses to maintain good muscle health.

Sources
Glutamine is found in beef, poultry, fish and diary products. It is also found in vegetables high in fiber (wheat, cabbage, beets and beans). The acid has many immunity properties and can be a source of energy for the muscles and brain, as well as assist muscle building. These properties are why it is used to treat mental retardation, ADHD, and depression, as well as build muscle for weightlifters. Glutamine-S (C8H15N3O4, also known as Alanyl-glutamine or L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine) serves as nutrition supplementation at the same time.

Considerations
The average diet provides anywhere from 5 to 8 grams of glutamine a day. It would not be unusual for bodybuilders in training to boost this level to 10 grams or more with its supplements. Others who need to control blood sugar levels may also benefit from additional product. Some non-scientific studies suggest that the acid may also help improve mental function, because the body naturally uses it to transport nitrogen to the brain and nervous system. Higher doses may cause unpleasant side effects such as diarrhea, but most healthy bodies can safely assimilate the excess amino acid.