Two Common Prescription Drugs for Prostate Cancer Treatment

The pituitary gland in the brain produces a “luteinising” hormone, also called lutropin, that induces the male testes to make testosterone, the primary androgen that controls and maintains masculine characteristics. Testosterone attached to prostate cancers causes the cells to multiply and grow. If a drug causes the pituitary to produce less lutropin, testosterone levels are reduced. This may cause the prostate cancer to shrink or develop more slowly.

Anti-androgen drugs block these testosterone receptors so they can’t instruct cancer cells to grow and multiply. Anti-androgens do not cure prostate cancer, but they can improve some of the disease’s symptoms and help the patient live longer.

The generic name for anti-androgen drug Eulexin is Flutamine. The anti-cancer drug Leuprolide is sometimes prescribed to accompany Euxelin. The two drugs should be taken together, exactly in the amount prescribed, without interruption.

Eulexin has caused some patients to suffer fatal liver failure. This is rare. Have your liver tested before taking Eulexin. If you experience liver problems, reduce your dosage or stop taking the drug. If you think you’re having liver problems, tell your doctor immediately. Look for itching, flu-like symptoms, yellowing skin or eyes, loss of appetite and tenderness on the upper right side of your abdomen.

Bicalutamide, also known by the brand name Casodex, is an oral medication that is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It belongs to a group of drugs called non-steroidal antiandrogens, and it works by blocking male hormones. It’s always taken along with another drug, and the two work together to stop the spread and growth of cancer cells. Bicalutamide should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor and all dosage instructions should be followed carefully.

As a non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide works by blocking the action of androgens, or male hormones, such as testosterone. When used together with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone such as leuprolide, bicalutamide(CAS:90357-06-5) helps to stop the growth and spread of cancer cells. It does not destroy existing cancer cells, so it is not considered a cure. Even if a patient feels better, he or she should not discontinue use unless instructed by the doctor.

Some common milder side effects are dizziness, weakness, headaches, hot flashes, back pain, digestive issues, weight gain or loss, cold symptoms, swollen or painful breasts, loss of sexual desire, and increased urination at night. Liver damage is possible and blood should be tested and monitored to ensure the medication is working with minimum possible side effects.

How to Get Rid of Cold Sores?

Cold sores, otherwise known as fever blisters, develop around and inside the mouth due to specific strains of the type 1 herpes simplex virus. When you get a cold sore scab, your first thought may be to get rid of it as quickly as possible. Instead of working to get rid of the scab, you may be better served by working to hasten healing. According to the Mayo Clinic, cold sores can be spread by sharing eating utensils, razors or even towels with an infected person who is experiencing an outbreak.

When you intend to speed the process of getting rid of a cold sore scab, you may do well to take care with washing your face. Experts usually recommend washing the area around the cold sore but avoiding the scab itself. If some water touches the scab while you are washing, this is unlikely to present a problem, but it’s best to avoid getting a lot of soap on it. After washing your face, you can pat the sore area dry if it has become damp and then avoid reusing the towel until it has been washed — this way, you can prevent the spread of the virus that causes cold sores.

It is interesting that the best way to get rid of a cold sore scab is to let it heal on its own. You might feel tempted to pick at a scab in the interest of making it go away faster, but in doing so, you may actually delay healing. The scab that forms over a cold sore is a natural part of cold sore healing, and if you leave it alone, it will eventually drop off on its own. If you pick at it or irritate it, however, you may not only slow healing, but also cause the area to become infected. Instead, it may prove best to work on speeding the healing process.

Though it’s not absolutely necessary to do so, you may also consider applying an over-the-counter ointment to the scab.One of the most popular over the counter treatments for cold sores is Zilactin. Zilactin works mostly by its active ingredient called benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol(C7H8O, CAS:100-51-6) dries out the sore, making it difficult for the virus to thrive and spread. Zilactin also creates a thin shell, similar to a Band-Aid, over the sore as it dries. The shell keeps irritants from entering the sore and also helps prevent the viral shedding that can spread the infection.

Suppression therapy is a proactive step to prevent cold sore outbreaks before they occur. Suppression therapy uses smaller doses of antiviral medications (such as acyclovir) on a daily basis to keep the virus from being able to grow enough to break through the skin.

How To Use Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture?

A growth regulator is a hormone or a substance which behaves like a hormone in plants. The chemicals are primarily used to accelerate or retard the growth pattern in entire plants or certain plant parts. Plant growth regulators have been used in the United States since the 1930s. Earliest plant growth regulators were ethylene and acetylene which were used to increase flower production in pineapple plants.

How Does It Work?
As we know, a growth regulator can tell a plant when to start or stop growing. Regulators are also involved in processes like leafing out, dropping leaves, setting fruit, and so forth. Growth regulator production can respond to pressure from the environment, with plants adapting their growth regulator output so that they do not overreach their means. They are produced in low levels in plants in response to natural cues, and in some cases, plants can also produce growth regulators which impact other plants. Fungi can also develop growth regulators which will have an impact on plant life.

Typical Growth Regulators
Ethephon
has a wide number of uses as a plant growth regulator. When used on turfgrass the chemical reduces the frequency of mowing. It hastens the rate of ripening and maturity when used in fruits, vegetables and nuts. It also acts as a floral stimulant in these trees and improves the color of the fruit. When used on ground covers, ethephon reduces flowering. The chemical inhibits fruiting in ornamental trees and hastens maturity in tobacco and cotton plants.

The use of flurprimidol as a plant growth regulator does not entirely kill poa annua but slows its growth and reduces the number of seed heads in the grass. Poa annua is an annual bluegrass variety and is considered the most troubling winter weed on golf courses. The light green weed produces seed heads, which ruin the playing surface. The control of poa is a major issue on golf courses.

Kinetin is a cytokinin type plant growth regulator. Its chemical names are referred as 6-furfurylaminopurine(CAS: 525-79-1) or 9H-Purin-6-amine,N-(2-furanylmethyl)- . It can promote cell division, differentiation and growth, and thus enhance germination and fruit set, induce callus initiation, reduce apical dominance, break lateral bud dormancy, retard aging.

Farming on a large scale may use growth regulators to control crop development for the purpose of making tasks such as harvesting easier by creating uniform crop development. If crops matured at irregular rates, as they might do under normal conditions, it could complicate the process of managing the farm. A growth regulator can also be valuable when making clones, grafting, and performing similar tasks.

Why Is Green Tea Helpful To Weight Loss?

Green tea has been used in human health regimens for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists determined what about green tea makes it so healthy and what effect it has on weight loss. Tea in general is a good addition to any diet and all teas have antioxidants to boost your immunity against a wide variety of issues. Green tea is no exception, but there are more benefits of green tea due to its increased amount of antioxidants.

Benefits In Health
Studies have showed the benefits of green tea to protection against infection, cancer, arthritis, impaired immune system, cardiovascular disease, and high cholesterol levels. The Chinese, however, used it for depression, headaches, weight loss as well as many other problems. Part of the reason that there are so many benefits of green tea is that there are antiviral and antibacterial properties in it. The tea literally starts working from the time you sip it. Studies have been done that shows a link in reduced tooth decay and green tea. It is believed that the anti-bacterial properties help to fight the bacteria that promote tooth decay.

Weight Loss
Green tea has a particularly strong dose of catechin polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is an anti-oxidant that is significantly more powerful than resveratrol. Resveratrol is found in red wine. The boost in benefits of green tea come from that part of the processing where the leaves are steamed instead of left to ferment, as they are with black and oolong teas. Steaming allows the EGCG to be sealed inside the tea leaf in greater quantities than if the leaf is allowed to oxidize and ferment.

The human body burns fat when it expends energy, and expends energy even at rest. A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that increased consumption of epigallocatechin gallate(CAS No.:989-51-5) in the form of green tea extract increased energy expenditure over a 24-hour period in test subjects: 10 healthy adult males were given 50 mg caffeine and 90 mg epigallocatechin gallate three times a day. The effect was a 4 percent increase in energy expenditure per day.

Some experts outline other benefits of green tea including curing indigestion, boosting brain function, and soothing the symptoms of hangover. Sipping just a cup a day of green tea has proven to be worth the effort. The only draw back is the caffeine found in green tea. It’s important to know that the caffeine found in green tea is a relatively small amount compared to coffee and outweighs the benefits of green tea overall.

Fast Facts About Pesticides

As we all know, pesticides are most commonly used to kill insects, as the name implies, they can be used to kill any kind of pest. However, unfortunately, they can also sometimes harm animals or plants that they aren’t intended to kill as well. Before using pesticides, homeowners and gardeners need to learn how to do so safely.

Misunderstanding
The most common misconception regarding pesticides is that they are all harmful for the environment. While it is true that some of the most popular pesticides are dangerous for the environment and even people, there are also organic and natural options that are safe to use, even around children. Non-chemical pesticides can be effective if you follow the directions for using them.

History
Sulfur was the first discovered pesticide, but later people also used arsenic, mercury and lead to protect their crops from pests. By the 1800s natural pesticides began to grow in popularity, and in 1939 DDT was discovered. DDT became the most widely used pesticide, but in the 1960s scientists discovered that this chemical was causing reproductive problems in birds and other animals. Until now, pesticides have been used for more than 4,500 years. Today DDT is banned in most countries, though some of the pesticides used are still unsafe.

Types
There are three main ways of pesticides. First, you can alter pesticides based on what they kill. Some of the most common kinds of pesticides are herbicides, which kill weeds, and insecticides, which kill insects. Pesticides can also be classified by how they work. For example, systemic pesticides attack a plant or animal from the inside after they are absorbed or eaten. Lastly, pesticides can be classified by their ingredients. Organic or natural pesticides are typically the safest, especially around children and pets, but chemical pesticides are typically the fastest-acting and most effective. 2-Methylsulfonyl-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine(CAS:113583-35-0), also called as pyrimidine,4,6-dimethoxy-2-(methylsulfonyl)- , is a typical pesticide intermediate used in synthesis.

Significance
In recent years, many countries around the world have begun limiting or banning the use of certain pesticides due to evidence that these chemicals can lead to serious health risks, including cancer, infertility and eye abnormalities. Consumption of meat and dairy products from cattle injected with hormones has been linked to breast cancer and the early onset of puberty. As more and more people turn to organic foods, the significance of the public’s concern over these health risks becomes obvious.

What Are The Benefits Of Arginine Hydrochloride?

Arginine hydrochloride, with the molecular formula C6H14N4O2.HCl, a form of L-arginine, is an amino acid that is naturally produced by body. It is easily absorbed by the stomach, which allows it to work quickly. Arginine hydrochloride often is used in dietary supplements, and it can be helpful for people with high blood pressure.

Arginine hydrochloride plays an important role in many natural processes inside the body. Its most significant function is its ability to speed wound healing, such as skin abrasions, burns or direct muscle damage. Injured athletes may take L-arginine supplements to recover faster; supplements also are commonly used by bodybuilders to help repair muscle tissue after a workout.

L-arginine can be found in many animal and vegetarian food sources. Some doctors may suggest eating an arginine-rich diet in addition to or as a replacement for supplementation. Dairy products, such as cottage cheese, milk and yogurt, are good sources of arginine. It is also found in abundant amounts in beef, bacon, shrimp, tuna, salmon chicken and turkey. Vegetarian sources include oatmeal, most nuts, some seeds and chickpeas.

For most people, supplementing arginine hydrochloride is not necessary because the body already produces enough of this amino acid. It they do not eat a balanced diet, the body may not produce enough arginine, however, it is necessary to consume the acid. Supplementation may also be used for people who have high blood pressure, as studies show that arginine can help lower it.

Urea is a substance excreted by the kidneys and removed from the body as urine. People with certain kidney problems cannot excrete enough urea. The creation of urea also is aided by L-arginine. Used regularly, this supplement can help the kidney excrete more urea, which can mitigate some of the side effects caused by kidney damage or dysfunction.

Tthough scientific data is insufficient, some doctors also believe it can improve some heart conditions because it helps prevent the arteries from narrowing. Although L-arginine isn’t commonly recommended to treat these conditions, some alternative health practitioners may recommend it, despite some of its side effects.

As for its side effects, Arginine hydrochloride(CAS:1119-34-2) most commonly causes gastrointestinal upset, which can cause diarrhea or loose stools. Its most concerning side effect is its ability to significantly decrease blood pressure, however. Although this is usually seen as a benefit, it can be dangerous for people who already have low blood pressure. It can also inflame the lungs, which can make it harder to breathe, making it unsafe for people with breathing problems.

About p-Toluenesulfonic Acid

p-Toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) or tosylic acid (TsOH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO3H. It is a white solid that is soluble in water, alcohols, and other polar organic solvents. Most often, TsOH refers to the monohydrate, TsOH.H2O.

It is a strong organic acid, about a million times stronger than benzoic acid. It is one of the few strong acids that are solid and, hence, conveniently weighed. Also, unlike some of the strong mineral acids (especially nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid), TsOH is non-oxidizing.

TsOH is prepared on an industrial scale by the sulfonation of toluene. It hydrates readily. Common impurities include benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid. Impurities can be removed by recrystallization from concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by azeotropic drying.

p-Toluenesulfonic acid may be converted to p-toluenesulfonic anhydride by heating with phosphorus pentoxide. When toluene sulphonic acid (o-, m-, p-,) is boiled with HCl or treated with super-heated steam, toluene is formed along with H2SO4: CH3C6H4SO3H (Toluene Sulphonic acid) + HOH (steam) → C6H5CH3 (Toluene) + H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)

Toluenesulfonic acid finds use in organic synthesis as an “organic-soluble” acid catalyst such as: Acetalization of an aldehyde, Esterification of carboxylic acids and Transesterification of an ester.

A tosylate ester has a limited shelf life in air due to its ready hydrolysis in the presence of light. The tosyl group is electron-withdrawing which makes tosylates excellent leaving groups. The tosyl group is also a protecting group for alcohols and amines, prepared by combining the alcohol with 4-toluenesulfonyl chloride, usually in an aprotic solvent, often pyridine, the basicity of which activates the reaction. Toluenesulfonate esters undergo nucleophilic attack or elimination.

Skin contact with p-Toluenesulfonic acid may result in pain and burns; these may be deep with distinct edges and may heal slowly with the formation of scar tissue. Ingestion of acidic corrosives may produce burns around and in the mouth. the throat and esophagus. Immediate pain and difficulties in swallowing and speaking may also be evident. Swelling of the epiglottis may make it difficult to breathe which may result in suffocation. More severe exposure may result in vomiting blood and thick mucus, shock, abnormally low blood pressure, fluctuating pulse, shallow respiration
and clammy skin, inflammation of stomach wall, and rupture of esophageal tissue. Untreated shock may eventually result in kidney failure.

Direct eye contact with p-Toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate  may produce pain, tears, sensitivity to light and burns. Mild burns of the epithelia generally recover rapidly and completely. Severe burns produce long-lasting and possibly irreversible damage. The appearance of the burn may not be apparent for several weeks after the initial contact. The cornea may ultimately become deeply opaque resulting in blindness.

Dangers Of Dry Cleaning Products

Despite called as dry cleaning, there is nothing dry about it. he clothes get just as wet as when you wash them. Thus, unlike traditional clothes washing, the cleaning solvent is not water-based.

Some cleaning products contain toxic chemicals that can be hazardous to your health. This is why natural cleaning solutions are becoming more common among those concerned about polluting their home air’s environment. Avoid dangerous household cleaning products or take the proper precautions when using them to ensure that they don’t cause damage. Investigate even natural products that are often as toxic as commercial manmade solutions.

Bleach
Bleach, a common ingredient in many cleaning products, is a disinfectant that will remove bacteria. It will kill mold and other contaminants. Bleach also whitens laundry. Bleach is dangerous if ingested. Its fumes can cause lung, eye and skin irritation. If enough is ingested, it can cause death. Prevent this by keeping it out of the reach of children. Using natural disinfectants instead of bleach.

Drain Cleaner
Drain cleaner, contains toxic chemicals such as lye or acids, regarded as one of the most toxic cleaning solutions. It will dissolve clogs in the drain such as soap scum or hair. Drain cleaners are fatal if they are swallowed. If this happens, immediately contact a poison control center. Instead of using toxic drain cleaners containing lye, choose those with natural and non-toxic products.

Polish
Many types of polish contain nitrobenzene. This is a compound that, though it is organic, is extremely dangerous. The chemical can cause skin discoloration. Using it often without ventilation can cause shallow breathing vomiting and eventual death. Prevent this by using alternative polishes and cleaners.

Perchlorethylene
The dry cleaning process involves the use of solvents to get the a garment cleaner. In most cases, a solvent called perchlorethylene (also called as tetrachloroethylene  or perc), is used by the vast majority of dry cleaners in the United States and other industrialized nations. Perchlorethylene, or tetrachloroethylene, is a organic liquid with the chemical formula C(Cl2)=C(Cl2). Prolonged exposure to perchlorethylene can cause liver and kidney damage. It can lead to a weakened nervous system. Prevent this by using dry-cleaning solution in a well-ventilated area. Despite this, it replaced other harmful chemicals that were not as effective and more dangerous to use.

In the past, a petroleum-based solvent was used in dry cleaning. However, these solvents posed considerable risks as they were highly flammable. Further, the solvent, itself, would often leave an odor on the clothing. While there may be cases, even in modern times, when dry cleaning products come back with an offensive odor, this is a rarity at most dry cleaners. Households need pay attention to hide risks while using dry cleaning products.

Do You Lack Magnesium?

Magnesium is an abundant metallic chemical element with the symbol Mg. It has a number of industrial applications in addition to being vital for many living organisms, including humans. It is one of the top five essential minerals needed by the body to promote good health. The body stores about half of its total magnesium intake in the bones, and the rest resides in the body tissues, organs, and blood.

Magnesium plays a large part in the enzyme reactions responsible for energy and cardiovascular function. It works together with calcium to maintain the body’s chemical balance. Taking Mg with calcium is the best way to get the full benefits of both these essential nutrients.

Deficiency Symptoms
Magnesium(CAS: 7439-95-4) can affect these processes: energy metabolism, blood sugar levels, blood pressure levels, immune system health and other processes. In terms of physical symptoms of Mg deficiency, there is a good chance that a person with inadequate levels will experience a wide range of aches and pains. Cramps in the legs are often present, along with a sense of stiffness in the neck. Symptoms of Mg deficiency may also include pain in the jaw that seems to appear for no reason. Tension headaches may become more frequent. In some people, a feeling of tightness in the chest will be one deficiency symptom, although this particular sign may come and go.

The heart is another site of deficiency symptoms. Without adequate levels of magnesium within the body, an individual may begin to experience palpitations or angina. The heartbeat itself may become irregular in addition to beating at a faster pace from time to time. In some cases, it is impossible for an individual to tell the difference between symptoms brought on by a Mg deficiency and those of a mild heart attack.

Food Sources
Magnesium is found in all different types of vegetables, nuts, seafood and grains in varied amounts. The highest concentrations are found in green leafy vegetables simply because Mg is the central atom within a plant’s chlorophyll structure. Tap water is also a source, though the amount depends on where the water supply comes from. Refined and processed foods, such as grains, breads and flours, are lower in magnesium atomic absorption standard solution content.

Considerations
The likelihood of ingesting too much Mg is low due to the stressors of everyday life, and the body’s tendency to excrete any excess. However, if high levels of magnesium and low levels of calcium are ingested, this does pose a risk of toxicity. The reason for this is these two nutrients work together to keep the body’s chemical levels in balance. Too much of one, and not enough of the other will cause adverse effects in the body.

How To Synthesize Peptides?

A peptide is a molecule or polymer which is formed as a result of the linking between two or more amino acids. Amino acids are molecules that contain both a carboxyl functional group and an amine. When a chain of amino acids is made up of less than 50, these molecules are referred to as peptides; when the chain is made up of more than 50, they are called proteins.

Each amino acid has a different side chain. All amino acids are comprised of an amino group, which is NH2, and a carboxylate group, which is COOH. When these groups react, they create a peptide bond. When carried out chemically outside of the cell, the peptide is known as a synthetic peptide.

A dipeptide contains two amino acids and has one peptide bond, while a tripeptide has three amino acids and two peptide bonds. The convention is that amino acid chains up to 50 amino acids are known as peptides, while those longer are known as proteins. The major difference in making a synthetic peptide is that the amino acids are added from the carboxylate groups forward. In cells, the ribosomes start synthesizing peptides with the amino group.

The anti-aging industry uses peptides in their products because of their ability to relay messages between the skin’s determis and epidermis. Peptide chains such as Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3 showed a decrease in skin roughness of 13 percent, a reduction in wrinkle volume of 36 percent and a decrease in wrinkle depth of 27 percent.

The most common method of making synthetic peptides is to use solid-phase peptide synthesis. This allows the formation of a synthetic peptide that would not occur in nature, such as those containing unnatural amino acids. With this method, peptide chains are immobilized on porous beads. The amino acids are treated with the protecting groups Fmoc or Boc to protect them from unwanted reactions.

The process of making antibodies to proteins in animals has become much easier with the advent of peptide synthesis. One does not have to laboriously purify the protein and use it to generate antibodies. One can synthesize a peptide to a fragment of the protein and then use that peptide as the source of the antibodies. A common peptide reagent is Boc-Arg(Tos)-OH, also called as N-Boc-N’-tosyl-L-arginine and the EPA name is L-Ornithine,N2-[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]-N5-[imino[[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino]methyl]- .

A particularly active area of research on synthetic peptides involves developing new therapeutic techniques, such as novel vaccines. Peptide synthesis is used to generate libraries of peptides to screen for their biological properties. Cell-penetrating peptides have been developed that can introduce various factors into cells, including peptides, proteins, and the building blocks of DNA. Such techniques have great potential as drug delivery systems.