Sodium Silicate Fact Sheet

Sodium silicate(Na2SiO3), commonly known as “waterglass”, is one of several chemicals that are composed of sodium, silica, and oxygen. This type products are manufactured as solids or thick liquids, depending on intended use. For instance, waterglass functions as a sealant in metal components. Lastly, although its production is a mature industry, there is ongoing research for new applications given its heat conductive properties.

Composition
A sodium silicate compound contains sodium oxide, Na2O, and silica, Si2O, or a mixture of these compounds. The chemical is a silicon-oxygen polymer containing ionic sodium (Na+) components. Such a molecular arrangement is different from typical ionic materials such as salt, which is based on formula units united by electrical attraction. By contrast, this compound is similar to carbon-based plastics since silicon-oxygen-silicon bonds between each monomer are covalent. The polymer-like nature of the matrix as well as the polar character of oxygen and sodium atoms allows for bonding of water molecules within the polymer matrix. Therefore, they often exist in hydrous allotropes. (Wells, “Structural Inorganic Chemistry”).

Production
A method for the synthesis of this substance involves a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) under conditions sufficient to melt both reactants. Sodium silicate is produced by this method with sufficient efficiency to be of commercial use.

Applications
Its water solutions bind solids well, forming insulation boards that tolerate high temperatures. This property enables them to be used to as a refractory—retaining strength at high temperatures. Due to this, they can be used as linings in kilns and glass-making equipment. If water-proofed, sodium silicate(CAS number is 1344-09-8) can be used as passive fire protection, such as being incorporated into the structure for plastic pipes, to form firestop devices.

The combination of being liquid and being resistant to high heat makes these compounds useful for automobile repair. A sodium silicate solution is circulated from the radiator to seal leaks in the head gasket. This solution can also be used instead of motor oil to permanently disable a car engine prior to the auto’s destruction. Liquid sodium silicate is also useful to treat concrete to make it more water repellent.

Silicate-based Paint: Benefits & Problems

Silicate-based paint (silacote) is a specially formulated type of inorganic, mineral paint. According to Silicate USA, a paint supplier, it’s the most resilient paint technology available to protect concrete and masonry. It is considered environmentally friendly since it contains natural ingredients and a very low to zero amount of volatile organic carbons (VOCs). It is manufactured in two forms: interior and exterior mineral paint.

The mineral pigments which make up silicate-based paint are inorganic compounds. These are natural occurring compounds that are resistant to alkaline substances. The mineral pigments don’t contain organic compounds that are commonly found in traditional paints.

When a surface is treated with this paint, the underlying crevices also contact the paint. The paint seeps into the material and reacts chemically with it. As a result, a covalent bond between the surface and the paint develops. The bond is very strong and is almost like a seal. This allows the surface to be impermeable to water but breathable at the same time.

The paint is designed to protect the surface from the weather. It can be used to repair, restore, and protect concrete, stone, and masonry. The entire exterior of a house can be restored with this type of paint. It will protect the house from wet conditions and salt damage. Most of the exterior paints also provide unique protection against graffiti or other defacing sprays, as well as soil or rain stains.

Silicate-based paints have high water absorption, which may impact the integrity of the concrete surface in the long term. According to Adrian Thomas, FTSC of Chemicalia Pty Ltd and author of “Waterborne Silicates” (a white paper), to lessen water absorption painters should combine these paints with a water repellent or the addition of an impregnation with a water repellent applied as a final coating to the painted surface. The water repellent, however, must only be applied as the final coating; otherwise it can impact the adhesion of the paint.

Typically, mineral paint is composed of soluble glass, such as sodium silicate or potassium silicate(K4O4Si, CAS No. 1312-76-1). These chemicals are colorless, transparent, and glasslike. These qualities have lead them to be commonly referred to as waterglass.

These products don’t have a closed seal to repel water, moisture and light when applied on surfaces, which means that the pigment in the paint is subject to the same environmental conditions, such as rain, wind and ultraviolet light from the sun, as the paint itself. Yet not all pigments are designed to hold up to these conditions. Certain silicate-based paints pigmented with inferior products can become discolored or show water spotting on the concrete surface. Look for a silicate-based paint colored with an inorganic pigment.

Uses Of Potassium Acetate

Potassium acetate is a potassium salt of acetic acid (CH3COOK). Molar mass is 98.15 g/mol. This chemical is the second member in the homologous series, potassium
formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate. The salt is a white crystalline powder that is highly deliquescent. It’s produced by combining potassium hydroxide with acetic acid, or vinegar.

Potassium acetate is used primarily as an alternative to potassium chloride in situations where there are environmental restrictions on the use of potassium
chloride. The product’s functionality is essentially identical to that of potassium chloride; that is, the potassium ion exchanges with calcium and sodium ions in the interlayer space in illites and smectites, converting them to more stable mica-type structures that do not hydrate and swell. The chemical is many times more soluble than KCl, but this offers little additional advantage for shale stabilization. Its solubility increases significantly with temperature, with a 104°F (40°C) increase almost doubling the solubility.

As the salt of a strong base and a weak acid, potassium acetate is a weak base in water. When infused directly into the bloodstream, it can be extremely harmful. It can elevate the level of potassium in the blood and cause an emergency condition called hyperkalemia. Although it is an eye irritant and mild skin irritant, it is not corrosive.

In its capacity as a de-icer, scientists believe potassium acetate is easier on the environment than most of the alternatives. However, it is more expensive. The threat posed by this compound to the environment by its use in the petroleum industry is also minimal compared to other chemicals in common use.

In medicine, the salt is used as part of replacement protocols in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis because of its ability to break down into bicarbonate and help neutralize the acidotic state. Potassium acetate(CAS:127-08-2) is also used as a de-icing compound for roads and runways, as an additive to dialysis fluids, in the manufacture of fire extinguishers and in the petroleum industry.

Potassium acetate can react violently with strong oxidizing agents like peroxides, nitrates and chlorates, and should always be stored separately from these chemicals. Its level of toxicity via oral administration is fairly low. The LD50, or amount required to kill 50 percent of a given population of animals, is 3.273 pounds per pound of body weight, meaning that it would be necessary to consume a large amount of the chemical before it would become lethal.

What Makes Lead Crystal Glass So Appealing?

For collectors, enthusiasts, and even general consumers, the term “lead crystal” invokes high quality. It is a special kind of glass, which has some unique and desirable properties. Although lead has been used to produce artwork for thousands of years—since at least the time of ancient Mesopotamia—the invention of leaded crystal is relatively recent. What is it about lead crystal that makes it so appealing? And what, exactly, makes crystal “lead crystal”?

History
British businessman George Ravenscroft is credited with discovering the manufacture of lead crystal in the 17th century. At the time, he was trying to find new methods of glass production that would allow him to match the success of the glass makers of Venice. He experimented with using flint as the silica source to make glass but found this resulted in poor-quality glass. Ravenscroft was able to improve the glass by adding high percentages of lead, resulting in lead crystal. He immediately recognized the desirable nature of the resulting glass and patented his invention.

Properties
The primary special quality of lead crystal is its high refractive index. This means that lead crystal increases the refractive qualities of the glass, giving lead crystal its distinctive, bright rainbow refraction, especially when cuts are made in the glass. Lead crystal also has a prismatic effect, giving rainbow shades to its sparkle. As well, this type of glass is softer than normal, so it is easier to work with and can more readily be cast and cut into pleasing shapes.

Composition
In order to qualify as lead crystal, the object in question must be not only made of lead glass, but also cut (by either machine or hand) into facets. Normal glass is a mixture of mostly silica, sodium oxide and calcium oxide. In lead glass, however, the chemical lead (II) oxide (PbO, also known as  Lead monoxide or yellow lead monoxide) is added. The amount of lead can vary, depending on the glass properties desired and the intended use. Lead levels as low as 2 percent by weight are found in some types, but the level of lead in crystal glass intended for show purposes is generally in the range of 24 percent or higher.

Warning
Lead glass is created by using lead oxide as a modifier and stabilizer during the manufacturing process. This differs from normal glass, which uses such chemicals as calcium or potassium oxide. It is possible for a lead crystal container to transfer some of its lead content to beverages, if the liquid is left in the container long enough (such as wine stored in a lead crystal decanter).

Cinnamon Benefits For Health

Cinnamon has been used as a spice for many foods and drinks throughout the ages. Scientists studying the health benefits of cinnamon have found it helps your body fight off disease. True cinnamon comes from the cinnamon tree, but much of the spice sold as cinnamon today is actually cassia, a close relative. It offers nutritional benefits and preventative health advantages. Only a small amount of cinnamon is needed daily to realize the health benefits of this wonder spice.

Diabetes Prevention
Research by the U.S. Agricultural Research Service shows that type 2 diabetics who take less than a half-teaspoon of cinnamon a day will have lower blood sugar levels. Another study showed that cinnamon slows the rate at which our stomachs empty, which reduces the quick increase in blood sugar after eating. In addition, animal studies have shown that the compounds in cinnamon increase the efficiency of the body’s insulin use, making it more glucose tolerant. So far there is no direct evidence that cinnamon helps type 1 diabetes.

Reduction of Cancer Cells
The United States Department of Agriculture conducted a study that found a small amount of daily cinnamon with breakfast reduces the number of cancer cells in leukemia and lymphoma patients. The cinnamon doesn’t cure these cancers but it does help control their proliferation.

Treatment For Fungal Infections
The chemical slows the growth of microbes and can be used as a food preservative, one that is often already present as a flavoring ingredient. Animal and test tube studies have shown it to be an effective treatment for fungal infections such as Candida albicans, the fungi responsible for vaginal yeast infections and thrush, a yeast infection of the mouth’s mucous tissues. It has also been shown effective against a bacterium responsible for many stomach ulcers, Helicobacter pylori.

For Brain
Chewing a stick of cinnamon gum can increase your ability to perform tasks and improve short-term memory. Three chemicals in the bark of both the cinnamon and the cassia trees are credited with giving them their health benefits. They are cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol(sometimes called as Cinnamic alcohol or 3-Phenyl-2-propene-1-ol, the CAS number is 104-54-1) and cinnamyl acetate. A study found that people who chewed cinnamon gum while working on specific tasks had increased brain activity and better cognitive functioning.

Source Of Fiber
Ground cinnamon contains 16 percent of the USDA recommended allowance of daily fiber. Simply add a tablespoon of ground cinnamon to a bowl of oatmeal or stir into a cup of coffee to increase your daily fiber intake.

Purpose of Fumigants

Fumigation allows homeowners to rid their home of damaging, dangerous pests, including termites. A fumigant is a chemical which is utilized as a pesticide or disinfectant while it is in a gaseous state. There are a number of uses for fumigants, and these chemicals are produced by chemical companies all over the world.

Types
Fumigants come in gas, liquid and solid forms. Gases such as hydrogen peroxide remain in gas form when put in a room at normal temperature. Liquids such as carbon disulfide evaporate into gas on contact with the air. Solids such as methyl bromide and phosphorus trihydride are exposed to oxygen for a chemcial reaction that produces hydrogen phosphate gas.

Structural Fumigation
One of the most popular uses of fumigants is in structural fumigation, where a structure is tented to keep the gas in, and filled with gas. As the gas moves through the structure, it kills pests inside. Tenting can take several days, with additional time to allow the structure to fully ventilate before people and pets are allowed back inside. This practice is commonly used with insect pests such as termites which cannot be controlled with less drastic measures.

For Textiles
Products such as leather goods, textiles, and so forth can also be subjected to fumigation if they are believed to be contaminated or if they are being brought across a containment line. For example, if an area is experiencing an outbreak of a plant disease, materials shipped from that area may be shipped to prevent the spread of the disease.

Agricultural Uses
Additionally, in agricultural industry fumigants can also be used to sterilize soil before planting, to treat infested crops, and to treat harvested products which have been infested. Agricultural products can be used in greenhouses, storage facilities, and on open fields. They are also sometimes utilized in sterilization in medical facilities, and in equipment decontamination. Para-Dichlorobenzene(C6H4Cl2, better known as 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or p-chlorophenyl chloride) is a common and effective ingredient of fumigant.

Time Frame
Its process varies depending on the type and size of the building that is being fumigated, the type of pests being removed, and the temperature at which the chemical is being used, among other circumstances. Depending on the circumstances, including the extent of the infestation, the fumigation may take as little as six hours to as long as an entire week to complete.

Peptides: Function & Food Sources

Peptides are biological molecules that are made up of amino acids. A peptide is a chain of covalently bonded amino acids that can consist of anywhere between 2 and about 40 amino acids in length, which can then be bonded together to form proteins in the body. There are two main food groups high in peptides: milk protein and wheat. Milk for instance, can help people fall asleep because it contains opioid peptides. Wheat contains opioid peptides as well.

Main Function
Neuropeptides are are found in neural tissues and produced from brain. These peptides acts as an extension of the neurosystem throughout the body acting as signals and regulators in processes that are triggered from places in the brain. Endorphins are common forms of neuropeptides.

Alkaloids are peptides that are commonly used in the development of defense mechanisms in types of fungi, plants and small animals such as shellfish. Ergotamine, pandamine and dynorphin are types of alkaloid peptides. It can stop the growth of microorganisms in the body. They are frequently used in medicine to kill disease-causing bacteria.

Hormones are types of peptides that carry signals between glands and cells. These peptides control body functions such as sleep and blood sugar regulation. They are made by the endocrine glands, as well as in the kidneys, stomach, intestine and liver. Insulin, human growth hormone, bradykinins, gastrins and oxytocins are peptides that are common hormones.

Common Food Sources
After consuming a milk product, enzymes decompose milk proteins in the digestive tract into opioid peptides. These peptides have an addictive component to them. As a result, they cause us to crave more of the opioid peptide. Therefore, this may link to overeating or wanting more food to help stop the craving.

Wheat products also contain a number of extremely powerful opioid peptides. All wheat products like pizza, bread, cereals and cakes contain opioid peptides. These foods not only taste good; nature has made it even harder to resist these foods. 1,1′-Carbonyldiimidazole(C7H6N4O, CAS No. 530-62-1) is used in the synthesis of peptides in these wheat products.

Considerations
Unfortunately, food manufactures want us to become dependent on the foods that they sell, so when reading labels, you may notice that many of the foods you purchase contain milk and wheat products. Obviously, completely eliminating these two food groups from ours diets is difficult, but we can reduce our intake of them by reading labels and being aware of what we are consuming.

Chemicals For Removing Paint

Although numerous chemicals and paint removal agents are available in hardware stores, “paint strippers” or chemicals that are used to remove paint fall under two main categories: solvent-based strippers (SBS) and caustic-based strippers (CBS). While most retail paint strippers have their own proprietary formula, the active ingredients are almost always common and solvent based.

Methylene Chloride
Also known as dichloromethane and “DCM,” methylene chloride is the backbone of the paint removal industry. Fast and efficient, it works on both alkyd and latex paints by passing through the upper layers and dissolving the chemical bonds between the primer and the substrate (e.g., wood, concrete, metal). This stripping mechanism causes the paint to bubble and crack from underneath.

The major and significant drawback of methylene chloride is its health risks. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has formally classified it as a carcinogen and the Environmental Protection Agency has classified it as a hazardous air pollutant. Furthermore, the human body converts a portion of inhaled methylene chloride into carbon monoxide, which blocks oxygen receptors in the blood and causes heart, lung, liver and kidney problems.

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
Commonly abbreviated as “NMP,” N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone(C5H9NO) removing chemicals was introduced to address the disadvantages and health hazards of existing paint stripping chemicals available. They have virtually no health risks but are slow in effect. They can take anywhere from 12 hours to an entire week to remove paint, although initial effects are visible within the first 24 hours. Paint removals based on NMP are effective in stripping surfaces from old, stubborn paints, as they are excellent in removing multiple layers of paint.

Usually mixed with lactic acid, pine extracts, citrus extracts, wood pulp and soy oil, strippers based on N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone(CAS No. 872-50-4) are sold under brand names. However, due to NMP’s expensive synthesis process, these strippers sell for roughly three times the price of DMC-based products.

Alkalis
While far and away the cheapest and most effective paint stripper, the active ingredient in caustic-based solvents is lye, a powerful base that can severely burn the skin, darken wood and soften wooden fibers. Sold as a solution or as a dry powder you mix at home, CBSs like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) work by converting the oil-based component of paint into soap. This saponification allows the attached layers of paint to be wiped off the surface.

Further Applications Of Amorphous Silicon

Amorphous silicon (better known as a-Si) is the non-crystalline allotropic form of silicon. It can be deposited in thin films at low temperatures onto a variety of substrates, offering some unique capabilities for a variety of electronics.

However, amorphous silicon differs from silicon in that it is non-crystallized and disordered in the same way that ordinary glass is, meaning that some of the atoms in its chemical structure resist bonding. These so-called “dangling” bonds impact the inherent properties of the material, namely giving it a higher defect density, which refers to the amount of naturally occurring imperfections. This substance still offers several advantages over crystalline silicon that makes it preferable for use in manufacturing thin films for coating a variety of electronic components, particularly photovoltaic (PV) systems. For instance, it can be applied to large areas in a more homogeneous manner than silicon and at very low temperatures, allowing it to adhere to glass, plastic, and metals.

One further advantage is that a-Si can be deposited at very low temperatures, e.g., as low as 75 degrees Celsius. This allows for deposition on not only glass, but plastic as well, making it a candidate for a roll-to-roll processing technique.  It has to go through hydrogenation to lend the material greater stability and durability. This means that the dangling bonds must undergo “passivation”, a process in which the unordered bonds in each layer of silicon cells are saturated with atomic hydrogen while under pressure between layers of transparent conductor and a metal backing, usually tin oxide and aluminum, respectively.

Another advantage of utilizing amorphous silicon thin film over crystalline silicon is that the former absorbs up to 40 times more solar radiation. To put this into perspective, a single strand of human hair has a thickness 100 times greater. This attribute adds to the cost effectiveness of using amorphous silicon in thin film technologies. That being the case, only a very thin film coating is necessary to absorb 90 percent or more of direct sunlight. In fact, the coating only has to be 0.000 039 37 inch, or one micrometer in thickness.

This material allows for greater flexibility in terms of how the material may be deposited, as well as offering more control over its voltage properties. As a result, amorphous silica(SiO2, better known as Silica Dioxide or Diatomaceous earth) can be used in thin film processes employed to make a variety of low-voltage devices, such as pocket calculators and watches.

Inevitably, there is one advantage of using amorphous silicon in solar cell applications is something known as the Staebler-Wronski effect. For reasons not completely understood, the cells in the material tend to decrease voltage output by up to 20 percent after initial exposure to natural sunlight. However, the material does reach a point of electrical output stability after one to two months.

 

Permanent Marker Facts

Just as what we think, a permanent marker’s marker will remain, even when confronted with water or other substances. However, even a permanent marker can’t promise to last forever. Writing on wood, for example, that is left outside to the elements might only last a few months, but will certainly last longer than any of its water-soluble counterparts. When quantities of materials found in permanent markers are non-toxic or non-injurious to humans, the permanent markers are labeled with an approved product (AP) seal, as required by The Art and Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI).

Characteristics
The boiling point of n-propanol in Sharpie fine point permanent markers is 207 degrees Fahrenheit, and the chemical has a vapor pressure of 13mm Hg at 20 degrees Celsius. The specific gravity of n-propanol in these markers is 0.8044, and it is water soluble. N-propanol smells like alcohol and is clear in color.

Diacetone alcohol is an odorless, colorless liquid. ChemicalLand21.com reports that it evaporates slowly and is used as a component of printing ink. Diacetone alcohol has a melting point of -47 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of 164 degrees Celsius. N-butanol is also clear in color and has a banana scent. It can be mixed with many solvents, according to Dow.com. N-butanol should not be inhaled and can irritate the eyes and skin.

Functions
A permanent marker is useful for many projects. Because permanent markers generally adhere to all types of surfaces from plastic to wood to paper, you can label your child’s toys for the beach; write your name on your luggage; create a sign; label items for your freezer (wrapped in plastic or foil first, of course). Permanent markers come in many different colors now, so color-coding items is quick and easy.

Ingredients
Permanent markers used to contain ingredients like xylene that could be considered addictive to smell. The Sanford Company, which created the popular “Sharpie” brand permanent markers, the markers and inks created by Sanford use combinations of various pigments and dyes as well as the chemicals propanol (related to rubbing alcohol), butanol (a flammable hydrocarbon like gasoline) and diacetone alcohol(also known as 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, a solvent with the formula C6H12O2). Pigments are usually used, though, in permanent markers because dye is water soluble.

Precautions
Be sure to read packaging for products; some carry warnings against breathing fumes from permanent markers. Storage precautions include refraining from shaking permanent markers and keeping the caps on when not in use. Permanent markers should be disposed of as solid waste and in accordance with federal, state and local regulations. They should not be burned because hazardous products will form, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, amines and oxides of nitrogen.