Flotation In Medicine & Industry

Froth flotation is a process using air bubbles to separate materials based on their relative affinity to water. Bubbles carry reagent and hydrophobic materials to the top of a tank where they can be removed. The process also widely used in medical science. In some schools of alternative medicine, flotation therapy may be used as a tool to help clients achieve specific goals, and people also use flotation tanks more generally for meditation and relaxation.

In Medical Treatments
Researchers believed that the brain would sink into a state of semi-consciousness if the body was suspended in warm water in a dark, soundproofed room. Originally, flotation tanks were designed for sensory deprivation experiments in the 1950s. Early studies seemed to suggest that this was, in fact, the case. As research subjects relaxed in the flotation tanks, their brain waves changed, until they ultimately reached a state of deep relaxation which is very close to unconsciousness.

In a flotation therapy session, the client will be asked to strip and shower before entering the tank. Many clients like to wear swim suits for modesty. The therapist may discuss the experience with the client before he or she enters the tank, and the client is usually asked to remove all jewelry and other distractions. Ear plugs may be provided to keep water out of the client’s ears and to keep sound pollution to a minimum.

In Industry
Air bubbles are introduced at the base of the tank. The tendency of the hydrophobic materials to adhere to the bubbles carries them up to the surface of the tank. At the top, the bubbles carrying their load of minerals, or froth, are skimmed off. The segregated compounds, which are solid, go through a further processing step to separate them from the air bubbles and the reagent residue. The residual hydrophilic material mixed with water in the tank, also known as gangue, is drained away. Potassium amyl xanthatre is a most powerful chemical reagent used as collector of Xanthate, widely used in the flotation treatment of sulfide ores,especially for the flotation treatment of Cu-Ni compound sulfide ore.

Many factors affect the quality of separation; these include the rate of flotation, the size of the ore particles, the density of the ore and water mixture, and the amount of air used. A recent use of the process separates ink from recycled paper. The mining uses of froth flotation include the separation of many different types of compounds including sulfides, silicates, phosphates, coal, and iron ore. Reagents or surfactants are carefully chosen to produce exactly the separation effect desired for a particular ore or combination of ores.

Dabigatran Etexilate & Dabigatran

Dabigatran etexilate is a drug that acts on the body to reduce the risk of clots in the circulatory system under certain conditions. Dabigatran is a medication used to prevent dangerous blood clots in patients with atrial fibrillation. Like other drugs in its class, it makes the blood thinner and interferes with the body’s ability to produce thrombin. People should not garble the two drugs and figure out the difference between them.

Dabigatran etexilate is an enzyme inhibitor, so it blocks the action of one particular enzyme, called thrombin, on processes inside the circulatory system. In a healthy person, thrombin causes blood to clot, which is useful for open wounds and other injuries to the body that cause bleeding. In the case of people who have abnormal heartbeats, thrombin can produce dangerous clots inside the body. Dabigatran etexilate blocks thrombin from performing one step in the clotting process — turning a substance called fibrinogen into another substance called fibrin, which helps the clot to form.

Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is a condition in which a person’s heart does not beat in a normal rhythm. Patients who have this illness are at risk of their blood clotting in the blood vessels, with these clots potentially being fatal or capable of causing strokes. To manage the risk of this happening, a doctor might prescribe dabigatran etexilate to the patient.

An anticoagulant, dabigatran prevents stroke and systemic embolism by keeping blood clots from forming. Anticoagulants interfere with the enzyme thrombin, which releases a substance that helps platelets in the blood stick together. This interference can prevent thrombin from forming, prevent it from functioning, or both.

Dabigatran is in a class of anticoagulant (”blood thinner”) medications called direct thrombin inhibitors. It works by preventing blood clots from forming in the body. Dabigatran is used to help prevent strokes or serious blood clots in people who have atrial fibrillation (a condition in which the heart beats irregularly, increasing the chance of clots forming in the body, and possibly causing strokes) without heart valve disease.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dabigatran for preliminary use in 2010. It is similar to another drug currently on the market called warfarin. Both of these medications pose an equal risk of internal bleeding, which can be considered an acceptable risk if the chances of developing a life-threatening blood clot are high. There are two dosages of dabigatran that have been approved for use by the FDA. Most patients are prescribed 150 mg to take twice a day.

Chemicals Used In Fireworks

Although fireworks are still as popular as ever, at least some of the science behind them was developed in China hundreds of years ago, when a chemical composition known as black powder was discovered. Before the 1830s, the only colors were orange and white. As knowledge about chemistry grew, so did the palette of colors available. Now, through the combination of various chemicals and metals we are able to see colorful displays that seem to get more intricate as each year passes.

This explosive charge may contain more reactive and more powerful oxidizers, such as potassium chlorate (KClO3) and perchlorate (KClO4), to produce a more rapid reaction and a bigger bang. In addition, the explosive bang of fireworks is also often due to the use of black powder. In this case, however, the powder is contained in a packing, which allows it to build up significant heat and pressure before the packet ruptures, so as to generate a bang rather than a propulsive force.

Black powder used to cause the firework explosions produces an orange flash. Before the 1830s this is how the color was produced. Black powder is still the most common exploding agent in fireworks, but the colors are now created using chemical compounds instead.

The way we see the color explosions comes from a few components. Iron makes the colors sparkle and chlorine affects the brightness of the colors. Each chemical combination is carefully put together to produce the desired color and effect. The black powder or explosive agent determines how far the color extends. The coloring agents are responsible for what color is shown and the other compounds dictate how the color appears. The star effect commonly seen is a result of zinc.

Some colors are produced from their own chemical solutions, while others can be achieved by mixing primary color solutions. Barium chloride dihydrate makes a bright green color, and orange is now made from calcium. Purple is just a combination of the red and blue compounds. Gold is produced by a blend of iron, carbon and charcoal or lampblack. Silver comes from aluminum, titanium or magnesium.

A firework is designed a bit like a rocket, with a hole at the base. It is a mixture of 15 percent charcoal and 10 percent sulfur, which serves as fuel, and 75 percent potassium nitrate (KNO3), which provides oxygen for the combustion reaction. As hot gases are expelled out from the base, they propel the firework upward. The substance that gets fireworks airborne is black powder, also known as gunpowder. When ignited, these chemicals burn rapidly and produce large quantities of hot gases inside a firework.

What Is Hiprex?

Hiprex, also known as Mandelamine and methenamine, is an medicine used to treat the infections of the urinary tract, such as cystitis, after the infection has initially been successful treated with other antibiotics. It is usually prescribed on a long-term basis for individuals with a history of repeated or chronic urinary tract infections.

Hiprex tablets contain the active ingredient methenamine (previously known as hexamine hippurate in the UK). Methenamine is a type of medicine called an antibiotic. It is used to treat and prevent urinary tract infections. It requires the urine to be acidic for it to have its antibacterial effect. It works by killing bacteria in the urinary tract. When there is an infection in the urinary tract, the bacteria in the bladder create an acidic environment that helps them to grow and multiply rapidly. As a result, the urine becomes more acidic, making it painful to pass urine.

Methenamine is absorbed from the gut and passes into the urine where, if the urine is acidic, a chemical reaction causes formaldehyde to be released. Formaldehyde kills the bacteria present in the urinary tract. Methenamine is not used very frequently because it needs the urine to be acidic to work.

The drug can also be used to kill bacteria in the urine that are not currently causing symptoms and thus prevent urinary infections, for example in people with catheters, or to prevent bacteria being introduced into the urinary tract during instrumental procedures.

Consult your health care professional about possible changes in your diet if necessary to increase the acidity of your urine (e.g., eating more protein and foods such as cranberries and cranberry juice with added vitamin C, prunes, or plums; avoiding citrus fruits and juices, milk and other dairy products, antacids). Before you start taking methenamine, check your urine with phenaphthazine paper or another test to see if it is acidic. Your urine must be acidic (pH 5.5 or below) for this medicine to work properly.

This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.

Side effects that typically go away as your body adjusts to the medication and do not require medical attention unless they continue or are bothersome: nausea and vomiting. If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Wood Rosin Used In Beverages


One of the most ominous sounding ingredients in a fruit-flavored beverage is glycerol ester of wood rosin. The product is similar to other forms of rosins but produced from wood products. Indeed, there is actually a trace of real products in many citrus-flavored sodas and other fruit drinks. The rosins are often byproducts of the wood pulping process that yields paper or can be specifically processed from stumps or other tree parts.

From the legal definition, wood rosin is the powder remaining after the distillation of wood turpentine. It is typically a powder material. Additionally, what is known as wood rosin or rosin oil can be extracted from wood products using a petroleum-based solvent. This type of the powder is commonly extracted with petroleum solvents rather than distillation. Pine type is often extracted from the stumps of pine trees cut for lumber.

While pine resin is used in conjunction with alcohol to produce lacquers used for wood finishes and in printers ink when used in conjunction with mineral oils. Gum rosin is applied in soft drinks to as an emulsifying agent to allow citrus flavors to become water soluble. In order to achieve a pleasing and authentic fruit flavor in a water-based beverage, manufacturers often use flavoring oils derived from citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons or limes. These flavoring oils are very concentrated, and must be balanced out with sweeteners before a beverage becomes palatable.

Without the ester of wood rosin as a stabilizer, the flavoring oil would eventually separate and the beverage would become unpalatable. In the case of fruit-flavored beverages, the addition of glycerol ester of wood rosin allows the fruit oils to remain in suspension when blended with water. This means that a can of orange-flavored soda would have a consistent orange flavor, not a layer of orange oil floating on top of carbonated water.

Federal regulations prevent more than 100 parts of this substance per million, which essentially means there is only a trace amount of actual wood rosin in a typical can of citrus-flavored soda. There is no evidence that the powder poses any sort of health threat to consumers. There are other stabilizers approved for use in beverages, but manufacturers consider glycerol ester of wood rosin to be the best and most natural option.

Lithium carbonate: Medicine & Industry

Lithium carbonate is a chemical compound that is often used in the creation of different types of products, including drug. It is prescribed to treat a wide variety of conditions such as bipolar disorder. In recent years, topical ointments containing this compound have been developed to treat various types of skin irritations.

The compound was firstly used in the middle of the 19th century focused around utilizing the compound in treating different ailments. Soon after, it was found to be useful in facilitating the dissolution of blockages in the bladder. By the middle of the 20th century, lithium carbonate was found to have a positive impact when used to treat people suffering from different types of depression. Doctors also began to employ the compound to treat stiffness in the joints, headaches, and even gout.

Nowdays, it is usually applied to restore and maintain emotional balance among patients who are dealing with bipolar disorders. Through prescribing does of lithium carbonate, it is possible to regulate chemical reactions in the brain, and then prevent the severe mood swings that are the earmarks of this mental condition. This effect allows the individual suffering from bipolar disorder go enjoy a more balanced perception, which in turn helps to promote cognition and allow the patient to interact easily with others.

In addition to medicinal uses, lithium carbonate can also be used to make glass products that have a high tolerance to heat. This chemical is widely used by global industrial enterprises. Canada Lithium Corp has received the mining licence from Québec’s Ministère Des Resources Naturelles et de la Faune (MNRF) for its Québec Lithium project near Val d’Or.

With the permit of the mining licence, mining operations will start at the end of 2012 and production of first lithium carbonate at the end of the first quarter of 2013. The operations will commence at the production rate of one million tons of ore per year to produce approximately 20,000 tons of battery-grade lithium carbonate.

The excavators and haul trucks in main mining fleet are on-site and pre-stripping of the pit area and orebody is slated to start in late July. It also said the granting of the mining license follows recent approvals for the location of the tailings management facility (TMF), waste dumps and mill site and other permits are anticipated, including an operating permit for the TMF.

Tips Of Coloring And Perming Hair

Some people like to keep up with the latest trends. This is evident with the variety of hairstyles seen in public and on celebrities. One of the ways people tend to update their look is by changing their hair color. Another way to update your look is to change hairstyle. So, you have to be very careful to maintain the health of your hair when you are processing it. If you keep your hair healthy and well moisturized, you can have beautiful colored hair with a perm.

Start with Good Hair Habits
Before you color or perm your hair, get it in good shape. Cut off any damaged hair and moisturize it. Your hairstylist can help you determine whether your hair is damaged. Examine the ends carefully for split ends. These indicate dry, damaged hair. Read your shampoos and conditioner bottles. Make sure they are designed for your hair type.

Read the instructions carefully and follow them. Be especially careful about the timing and the follow-up conditioning. Once your hair is healthy, you can color it. If you want to go lighter, you will need to bleach it and then color it. This should only be done on very healthy hair. Going darker does not require bleaching first, so it is gentler on hair.

You need to wait at least one week after coloring your hair to perm it. Your hair needs a rest after the color before you use more chemicals on it. Some colors, like reds, are harder to keep vibrant and color protection shampoo can help. During this time, continue to use good hair care products that are designed for your hair type. You can change to a color protection shampoo if you want.

You are ready to perm you hair. Perming chemicals are harsh. Extra curly hair is treated with a very basic solution (9.3-9.5) of ammonium thioglycolate, then put on rollers with a slightly higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than in less curly hair (5 percent). Sodium bromate(NaBrO3, CAS No. 7789-38-0) rather than hydrogen peroxide is used to quench the reaction.

Don’t wash or wet your hair for 48 hours after your perm while the perm “sets.” After that, continue to treat your hair with the best products to maintain healthy looking hair. Remember, your perm will last until it is cut out of your hair, but your color will have to be re-done about every five to six weeks.

Hypnosis Helps To Treat Insomnia

Insomnia affects over 40 percent of adults worldwide on a frequent basis, although experts estimate that almost all of the adult population has suffered from it at some point in their life.  While there are many treatments available for insomnia, from natural remedies to prescription pills, hypnotherapy is gaining popularity as a tool to deal with insomnia without invading your body and without the risk of secondary effects.

Induction into a hypnotic state can take time, depending on the subject. Typically the hypnotist begins with the tensing and relaxing of parts of the body in succession. The hypnotist will talk in a very soothing, calm voice and make suggestions, perhaps describing a very soothing environment to put the subject in a state of relaxation. It can often take 20 minutes or more to bring someone into a state of hypnosis if he has never been hypnotized before.

You can tell that a person has reached the state of hypnosis by his rapid eye movements, an appearance of relaxation and, if the subject is being questioned, his speaking more slowly and less concisely. As a subject, a person in a state of hypnosis will usually feel lethargic and be aware of his surroundings, but be too tired to move his body.

Because insomnia is often caused by stress, hypnotherapy can be used to learn relaxation techniques, and to train the mind to slow down when your body is getting ready for sleeping. Hypnotherapy is especially useful if insomnia is caused by a “racing mind” or excessive emotional or mental arousal, where the mind simply cannot stop rushing through different subjects and trains of thought.

Self-hypnosis can be a great start to deal with insomnia problems. Sometimes, it is necessary to take some medicine that enhance the effects, such as sodium bromide(NaBr, CAS No. 7647-15-6). By concentrating on relaxing each part of your body as you lay in bed, you can start fighting some of the tension. You can also work onyour breathing and find a mantra you can repeat to yourself to help you fall asleep each night thereafter.

Hypnotherapy can help re-educate the mind when it comes to insomnia. When you go to sleep expecting a relaxing night and good dreams, it is more than likely that you will get them. People with chronic insomnia that does not respond standard treatment should consult a doctor, as there might be more serious causes behind the problem.

Vitamin B6 Fact Sheets

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is crucial for many bodily functions as well as the overall maintenance of good health. It is important for the immune and nervous systems, and can help relieve symptoms of arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome. It is an essential nutrient that we must obtain from our food or from dietary supplements.

Vitamin B6 is required for the breakdown and utilization of all food–protein, carbohydrates and fat–that we eat. Vitamin B6 is required for the formation of many neurotransmitters–the chemicals that our brain uses to send messages throughout the body–including serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. Vitamin B6 is required for the conversion of homocysteine to cysteine in the body (along with folate and vitamin B12). High homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, as well depression. In helping to reduce homocysteine levels in the body, Vitamin B6 plays an important role in reducing the risk of heart disease.

Researchers have associated B6 with the prevention or treatment of many medical problems. For example, it may help prevent or treat high blood pressure and the dangerous build up of plaque in a person’s arteries. It may help relieve or prevent depression, epilepsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. It may even play a role in the treatment of such conditions as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), asthma, kidney stones, and alcoholism. Interestingly, those with adequate intakes of this vitamin may even have fewer skin conditions, such as acne and dermatitis.

Types And Sources
The types are called pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine. While most people take vitamin B6 supplements to make sure they are getting enough, some can get enough of this vitamin by eating a well-balanced diet. Vitamin B6 supplements can be synthesized by 2-cyanoacetamide(also known as Cyanoacetamide, CAS No. 107-91-5). The nutrition is found in a wide variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, meats, and fish. Turnip greens, spinach, and cauliflower are sources of B6. Meat, fish, and poultry sources of the vitamin include chicken, beef, venison, salmon, and tuna.

Excess Vitamin B6 in the pyridoxine form can result in nerve disturbances that can cause symptoms of tingling, numbness or pain. Do not take more than 100 mg of vitamin B6 daily on a long-term basis unless it is in the pyridoxal phosphate form and only after consulting with your doctor.

Different Uses Of Isopropyl Alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol, or 2-propanol, is a colorless, combustible liquid known by a variety of names. It belongs to a class of organic compounds called alcohols, all of which are distinguished by an -OH group attached to their carbon chain. Many of isopropyl alcohol’s physical properties resemble those of other similar short-chain alcohols.

Thanks to its -OH group, isopropyl alcohol molecules can form weak bonds, called hydrogen bonds, that help hold the molecules together. Consequently, it has a much higher boiling and melting point than propane, which also contains three carbons and eight hydrogens. The boiling point of isopropyl alcohol is 82 degrees Celsius; its melting point is -89 C. Its boiling point is lower than that of 1-propanol (propyl alcohol).

Although it is made from combining water with propylene, it can be easily separated from its water constituent though a process called salting out. This involves the addition of an organic salt such as sodium chloride.

Since isopropyl alcohol is a solvent, it has many uses as a cleaning agent, providing safety precautions are observed. For instance, computer users know its value in removing dirt from hard-to-reach areas, such as between keys on keyboards and on mouse wheels. In fact, since it evaporates almost immediately, there is little risk of shock or damage to electrical components.

Isopropyl alcohol is flammable both in liquid and vapor form. Exposure to oxidizing agents like chromic acid will convert isopropyl alcohol into acetone, while exposure to heat and concentrated sulfuric acid can dehydrate isopropyl alcohol to form propene. Strong bases can tear the hydrogen ion off isopropyl alcohol to form isopropoxides, which are strong bases and may be useful in some organic syntheses. Reacting isopropyl alcohol with phosphorus tribromide(Br3P, CAS No. 7789-60-8) will replace the alcohol group with a bromine atom.

In addition to providing an outlet for chemical experimentation in the lab, isopropyl alcohol can be found in nearly any home medicine cabinet. In fact, it was once the popular choice for medicinal rubdowns—hence the nickname “rubbing alcohol.” When applied to the skin, the water component quickly evaporates, cooling the skin’s surface and rapidly reducing body temperature. For this reason, it was once recommended for reducing fever in children. However, since rapid decrease in temperature is now considered detrimental, health care professionals no longer recommend the use of it for this purpose.